Friday, July 3, 2020
AP Tests January 10, 2013 Our Founder, Bev Taylor, wrote a controversial Huffington Piece article a couple of months ago about how AP testsÃ are a bit of a scam. She told the story of how her son, who had already been admitted to the Ivy League school of his dreams, chose to doodle on his AP Calculus exam. Why? Because the college he was matriculating to didnt have a hard math requirement and he didnt have a shot at getting a 5 anyway. One person (SteveinLA) wrote in the comments section to the article: Your son had the opportunity to demonstrate that he had some competency at mathematicsand he chose not to. That tells me much about his character.Ã Your anecdotal story emphasizes the need for teachers of AP courses to be strict regarding their grading policies, as we look like fools when the student receives an A in the class and scores a 1 on the exam. But, thats what happens when students have no pride, grades are due May 31st and the AP exam scores come out in July. AP tests are important in the college admissions process but they may not result in college credit for much longer. We happen to think that SteveinLAs comment is rather foolish. Bevs sons pride is not linked to a score he got on a meaningless test that had no chance of impacting his future. There was zero point in his having to take the test since his school didnt have a hard math requirement and it wouldnt impact his AP Calculus grade. The AP program is built on the foundation that students (and their parents) can save money towards college degrees by receiving credit in high school for AP courses. Well, SteveinLA, what do you have to say of Dartmouth Colleges decision to eliminate AP scores counting towards college credit? Does this contradict all that you believe about the AP program? According to The Dartmouth, The CollegeÃ¢â¬â¢s new policy to stop accepting pre-matriculation credits for incoming students may impact students who wish to save on tuition by graduating early. The change, voted upon by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences on Nov. 12, will take effect beginning with the Class of 2018, according to Registrar Meredith Braz. We apologize, SteveinLA, if this is a blow to your pride. High school coursework has no business in the same sentence as college coursework. And more and more colleges will stop accepting AP credits in the future.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Comparative Analysis of the Tell Tale Heart and the Raven Edgar Allen Poe was the author of several daunting works of literature. Two examples of Edgar Allen Poes literature are The Tell Tale Heart and The Raven. If we compare these two works, one a short story and the other a poem, we will see that Poe shows great mastery of symbolism, as well as other forms of literary technique. In these two stories, many people would say that Poe uses the tales to reflect the way he perceives life in general. Poe makes obvious use of symbolism, metaphors and imagery within these two works of literature. Within the poem The Raven Edgar Allen Poe uses imagery, in many different forms. Imagery is words that are used to create aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is about how a man should be happy that a beautiful young woman is dying. He should exalt the fact that the woman is going to a better place, also known as Paradise or Aidenn in this poem. Thus, the echoing of Lenore first hints to the reader that this Lenore represents Poes suffering wife, but in this poem, she is characterized as the speakers already dead wife. The reader knows that the speakers wife is already dead since later in the poem the speaker says he wants the raven to leave him in unbroken loneliness. That is, Poe is trying to imagine getting news of the death of his wife through the speaker in his poem so that when his wife does die, he will not be terribly traumatized. Later, the speaker hears more rapping at his door. This time when he opens it, he finds a raven so noble and majestic that it would even dare to perc h on Pallas Athenas, the Goddess of Wisdom and Wars, bust, or breast. The first question he asks the raven is what its name is since he believes it to be from the Nights Plutonian shore, which means a messenger of Ares, the God of the Underworld and dead. God Ares. The raven simply replies Nevermore and answers every question with this word. The ravens name as Nevermore also furthers the statement that it is a symbolization of death. At first the speaker makes himself believe that when the raven says nevermore, he is muttering the fact that
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Year 11 English: AS 90854 (1.10) Form personal response to independently read texts, supported by evidence. Reading Response 4 Title: Boy Director: Taika Waititi Text Type: Film A character that I liked while watching the film was Boy. For an 11 year-old boy, Boy has a fantastic imagination and is always optimistic. From what we see in the movie, Boy has had a difficult life but only when it comes to his parents. Other than that his life is all right. In some ways I can relate to Boy because his father doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t live with him and neither does mine, but he is always optimistic that his father will come back and see him. Boy lives with is grandmother and 5 other kids. When his grandmother goes away to a funeral, Boy becomes in charge of the house and everyone inside it, every night he cooks them meals and puts them to bed. I find this quite admirable of Boy because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to do it if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to, but it is his responsibility so he does it. Also when his father arrives home with his two friends, Boy does the polite thing and offers them a cup of tea, Ã¢â¬Å"would you fellas like a cuppa tea?Ã¢â¬ This shows that even for a y oung age Boy is already quite grown up and knows how to treat company. I admire Boy because later on in the film, the father does something that hurts Boy a lot and then for RockyÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, who is BoyÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother, he forgives his father because Rocky still thinks that his father is cool, even if Boy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t and Boy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to ruin that forShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Bad Boys Movie969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Cops (tv show) Cops is known for the Bad Boys theme song. It first aired on March 11, 1989 and it showed on the Fox network. Cops showed pretty much what the police officers, constables and sheriffs deputies patrolling streets go through. They come across car thieves, drug pushers, sex-trade workers, and violent thugs. They put cameras on real officers and send them out. (Wikipedia, 2017) The police image is shown in a positive way. It shows what our officers go through. This show representsRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Julien Donkey Boy 1920 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn his sophomore film, Julien Donkey-Boy (1999), director Harmony Korine tunes in to the psychotic perspective of Julien (Ewan Bremner) Ã¢â¬â a suburban schizophrenic with raisin-black eyes and detachable dentistry Ã¢â¬â and his almost equally grotesque family, in a disorderly smear of violence, incest, and finally, tragedy. The film s fragmented narrative structure, with its grainy and hand-held visual style, shudders on to th e screen in a fusillade of discursive vignettes, that reflect, not only the digitalRead MoreMovie Analysis : The Four Young Boys 1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStand by Me when he sheds light on multiple stereotypes in society. Throughout the film, Gordon, Chris, Vern, and Teddy, the main characters in the movie, frequently describe each other with derogatory terms, which characterize stereotypes in American culture. In ReinerÃ¢â¬â¢s movie, the four young boys follow the stereotypes that society establishes for boys and men. The main characters in the film display various stereotypes that society holds for both men and women. ReinerÃ¢â¬â¢s film shows that some menRead MoreMovie Analysis : Am I A Boy Or A Girl 901 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescultures. In the movie, Ma Vien en Rose (My Life in Pink), director Alain Berliner highlights a family shunned by their own community in retaliation of their seven year old transgender son, Ludovic. There are several interesting aspects within this f ilm that highlight the Ã¢â¬Å"fearÃ¢â¬ of difference. Also, the confusion and anger embedded throughout the movie in regards to misapprehended gender based expectations. The question that Ludovic continues to question throughout the film is, Ã¢â¬Å"Am I a boy or a girlÃ¢â¬ ?Read MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Oh Boy 3 1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOh boy 3:00 am, said Booker. Booker goes downstairs to the kitchen and look at the refrigerator. Really they re nothing to eat once more, said Booker. But in the refrigerator there are three thing that he could eat a salad, cereal, and a piece of pie. That s a shame might as well go back to be- oh I forgot the newspaper, said Booker. So while Booker was getting hugs newspaper he hear something crash down not so hard that it s noticeable while asleep but awake so he when to investigate. WhatRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Englishman s Boy 2049 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages The film Ã¢â¬Å"The EnglishmanÃ¢â¬â¢s boyÃ¢â¬ is a screen adaptation of Guy VanderhaegheÃ¢â¬â¢s book of the same name. Vanderhaeghe also wrote the screenplay for the film. The book was based on the true story of the Cypress Hills massacre in 1873. I will provide a summary of the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s most important plot points, characters and background information. The movie covers the horrors that were witnessed in Cypress Hills and shows the inhumane way Native Americans have been treated since colonization, in 1873 and throughRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Black Boy By Richard Wright1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesus their gruesome and heart wrenching experiences in their perspectives during the war. During this whole book, Terry does not interfere or add any of his own comments into the stories. But rather, he wrote the book as told by these soldiers. Black Boy is an autobiography written by Richard Wright. Wright writes about his childhood and the life he experienced during the Ji m Crow South from 1912 - 1927. He writes about his painful past, but also writes about how these memories help him understand moreRead MoreMovie Analysis : Boys Don t Cry 878 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesidentity crisis problem and just said that he was a lesbian. Zooming in on the events that take place in the film Boys DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Cry, one can have a deeper understanding of gender identity, by applying the ideas of Foucault and Queer Theory. Such main points considered from Foucoult and Queer Theory are the construction of homosexuality, Queer knowledges/Queer Performances and Scienta Sexualis. Boys donÃ¢â¬â¢t cry is not a film that only caters to the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s pleaser, but a film that shows ones struggle with genderRead MoreCharacter Analysis : Bad Boys II : Movie Review1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Bad Boys II follows two Narcotics Detectives, Mike and Marcus, investigating the trafficking of ecstasy into Miami. Mike Lowry has tons of money from a trust fund, so he is always wearing very showy clothes and drives a nice car. He is constantly trying to get the ladies and is very reckless with his police work. He does not have any desire to settle down just yet. He is the Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ character in the movie. Marcus Burnett is the opposite of his partner. He is a responsible family man who is alreadyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie The Boys Of 67 Charlie Company s War 1227 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMeghan Hunger Dr. Wiest History 102-K8 20 April 2015 The Boys of Ã¢â¬â¢67 Charlie CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s War in Vietnam The Vietnam War is probably the worst war that the men in America have ever had to fight. These men not only had many struggles and extreme stress brought on by the war, but when they came back home, the people of America treated them like dirt and they were not thanked for the service they did for their country. Dr. Andrew WiestÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Boys of Ã¢â¬â¢67 Charlie CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s War in Vietnam gives a first
Friday, May 15, 2020
The Resolution of Conflict As an Effective Tool in Resolving Disagreements Kristin Rochon University of Phoenix Abstract Conflict resolution is an important skill that can be beneficial and lead to a greater understanding of our fellow man and our common denominators. It is through conflict resolution that we can learn to work together for the greater good. Conflict resolution is an important part of working in a team. Different aspects of conflict include a brief history, types of conflict, mediation, negotiation,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦All those attending school need to know how to manage conflict if they are to become successful members of the academic community and society as a whole. Many instructors and educators believe that competence in controversies, such as resolution skills, can lead to increased social and academic skills thus creating a more harmonious world (Johnson, 1995). It seems that many young adults are not learning conflict resolution skills at home, as shown by the increase of violence in the academic setting. This is a prime example of why conflict reso lution programs are imperative in the classroom. When in a school setting, students resolving disputes amongst themselves free up the instructor to help students with academic pursuits (Johnson, 1995). Conflict resolution can have considerable value if managed in the correct way It stands to reason that it is not whether the conflict occurs, but more importantly, in what manner it is contended with. Some of the benefits derived from conflict resolution include an increased incentive to change, heightened awareness of if a problem exists, and how to rectify it. Also, a higher quality of decision making, greater sense of caring, commitment and community has been shown as a result of participation in conflict resolution techniques (Deutsch, 1987). Conflict resolution programs increase commitment to making solutions work, and enhance communication skills, cognitive skills and problem solving skills (Essayed -Show MoreRelatedAssignment : Three Self Assessments1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSelf-Assessments Shirley A. Allen L7900 Conflict Management Dr. Michael Dillon Argosy University May 20, 2015 Students are required to perform a self-assessment or an assessment relating to another person. These assessments will evaluate values clarification and conflict resolution, the big five assessment, and conflict management styles. Upon completing the assessment an interpretation will be provided to analyze the best outcome for a particular style in managing conflicts. Understanding of your personalRead MoreConflict Resolution Plan1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿CONFLICT RESOLUTION ACTION PLAN Introduction The recently-resolved Chicago Teachers Strike provides an opportunity to apply basic conflict-resolution principles and strategies to develop an effective conflict resolution action plan. Generally, that action plan will allow the respective sides in any conflict to resolve it as expeditiously as possible in several different ways. First, it limits the spread of conflicts over specific issues to wider antagonism focused on identity or affiliationRead MoreHealth Care and Communication Essay879 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages It is important that peers communicate effectively with one another in the health care environment. Parvis (2001) discusses the importance of effective communication practices that promote peer-to-peer collaboration among colleagues, and advocates open sharing of thoughts, ideas. The willingness to actively participate in events that encourage open discussions is equally important. The definition of public speaking (as cited in the American Heritage College Dictionary) is Ã¢â¬Å"the expression of oneselfRead MoreConflict Resolution Strategies1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRunning header: CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES Conflict Resolution Strategies Wendy L. Decker University of Phoenix Conflict Resolution Strategies In this writing, we will explore and explain strategies of conflict resolution and, encourage teams, individuals and society as a whole to use some of these ideas for their own resolution purposes. Ã¢â¬Å"In many cases, effective conflict resolution skills can make the difference between positive and negativeRead MoreTechniques For Effectively Manage Conflict1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Techniques to Effectively Manage Conflict Kaitlin Hodges Indiana University Northwest Techniques to Effectively Manage Conflict The medical profession relies heavily on collaboration and teamwork. Whether the professional is performing surgery or providing care to a sick child, the medical team is obligated to work together in order to efficiently accomplish common goals. However, when individuals are brought together as a team, differences in opinions, interests, knowledgeRead MoreThe Importance of Team Communication Essay1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Importance 1 Running head: THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAM COMMUNICATION The Importance of Team Communication The Importance 2 Abstract This paper will discuss the importance of effective communication among teams whether in a professional or educational setting. The intended information will create a broader understanding of how team members establish communication: assigning a leader, what each member is expected to do in order to achieve the desired goal or goals and attainRead MoreDiversity and Avoiding Conflicts1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile this is a proven approach, any time you bring together people from differing backgrounds and experiences, it is inevitable that conflict will occur. Many people and organizations view conflict as a negative, or something to be avoided. Yet conflict, differences, or disagreements are a natural result of people working together. Also, without conflict, teams can become complacent and not perform at optimum levels. The challenge then becomes, how should the team be prepared for thisRead MoreWhy Alternative Dispute Resolution ( Adr ) Experts1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages2) Why do alternative dispute resolution (ADR) experts emphasize the importance of Problem Solving approach in conflict resolutions? Are there weaknesses and/or short coming to this approach? The problem solving approach in conflict resolution is when parties in a conflict engage in dialogue that will allow for re-conceptualizing the conflict with a new view to find creative, or win-win, outcomes. Problem solving approach, used by alternative dispute resolution (ADR) experts requires joint effortRead MoreTeamwork in the Workplace Essay1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespersonalities. Conflict is inevitable when it comes to group dynamics. Conflict resolution is necessary to keep the group functioning efficiently. This paper will analyze group dynamics and focus on conflict resolution by way of communication. Teams consist of personnel with varied backgrounds, experience, education, and intellectual ability. These differences will, by nature lend themselves to varying perceptions in business, its problems and solutions, which result in conflicts within theRead MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesresulted primarily in areas that are considered failing states. Many terrorist groups have emerged in areas where there were extreme socio-political distresses. Following the occupation of terrorist organizations, there is an establishment or destruction of a state at a direct cost of an existing one. In order to understand terrorism and address it, one has to understand the deeper issues that would inspire a group of people to justify violence against civilians are worthy of their cause. Hence
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Perlman; 139w Paper Assignment #3 Media texts are created from past events that have occurred and often times Hollywood would try and manipulate the event so it represents the past and the reception it gets through different communities. The film Argo (2012) is no exception trying to show a Ã¢â¬Å"HollywoodizeÃ¢â¬ event of the Iranian Hostage Crisis which received mixed receptions and is controversial on how the event is portrayed. The film is often criticized for the authenticity and accuracy of how the event is portrayed; the film directed by Ben Affleck chose to add Ã¢â¬Å"dramaÃ¢â¬ and manipulate the actual event in order to obtain a wider audience. With the film involving a variety of government during the hostage crisis, the film focuses onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦During the protest scene of the citizens trying to break into the United States Embassy had intercuts of a perspective of an individual in the mob. This gives a sense of authenticity because the quality of the recordi ng is similar to a hand-held camera that stands out from the rest of the film sequence. Within the film sequence the film viewer can see how Affleck approach the topic with intercuts as the tension builds in Tehran and back in the U.S. trying to successful pull off an operation in the government. The film received great reception as a good film getting good reviews, but to some critics it becomes a question why did the film perform so well in the U.S.? According to a criticism in the New York Times by Stanley Fish Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËArgoÃ¢â¬â¢ CaperÃ¢â¬ mentions on how the presentation of the narrative approaches an improbable task AffleckÃ¢â¬â¢s character has to overcome (Fish). The narrative and concept of a caper film, which caper means that the task is pulled off with a Ã¢â¬Å"combination of ingenuity, training, deception and luckÃ¢â¬ (Fish). The critic is trying to show the reception the film received is built on the tension in the film because that dramatization of th e escape is events that towards the end of the film where suspense build up where seven Americans are pulled off to the side in the airport and is being questioned about leaving. How Affleck paced the film addsShow MoreRelatedIdentify the Firms Key External Stakeholders and Show Their Varying Influences Upon This Organisation2725 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesbusiness sells through. This report is about identifying Argos key external stakeholders and also analysing the external stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ influence on Argos, Conclusion and finally, bibliography. History Argos is a subsidiary retailer of Home Retail Group, and was founded in 1973 by Richard Tompkins. It is the biggest supplier of consumer goods in United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland and has 750 stores. Argos Limited has about 51,000 employees and its headquartersRead MoreStrategic Assignment5157 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesARGOS | STRTEGIC PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT | Assignment | KEHUL KAVAIYA 7/22/2010 | Edexcel Level 7 BTEC Postgraduate Advanced Diploma Management Studies ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY: UNIT No: 04 17 UNIT NAME: Strategic Planning and Implementation Strategic Marketing Management By: KEHULKUMAR NAROTTAMDAS KAVAIYA Student ID: STUD-7266 Company: Argos Limited Type | Public | Industry | Retailer | Founded | 1973 | Head OfficeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Argo 1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Argo is a 2012 film directed by Ben Affleck that is based on the events of the Iranian hostage crisis of 1979-1981. The film uses variations from Tony MendezÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Master of Disguise, who was a U.S. CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) operative, and as well as the 2007 magazine article from Wired by Joshuah Bearman. The movie follows the events that led up to the Iranian hostage crisis where on November 4th, 1979 more than sixty Americans were taken hostage in the United State Embassy in TehranRead MoreThe Islamic Republic Of Iran1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinspired new waves of government control, tyrannical and benign leaders, and great cultural change over time. The strong religious beliefs expressed by the people of this nation are both a form of unity and disunity that cause widespread schisms within this state. As a theocratic republic, the intermingling of religion and government within the state has caused a very controversial history for this nation. Since the late 70Ã¢â¬â¢s the influence of a Supreme Leader as well as a government headed by a presidentRead MoreThe Good Wife, By Michelle King, Ted Humphrey, And More934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworking society now more than ever before. My television series I have chosen is the Ã¢â¬Å"The Good WifeÃ¢â¬ The reason why I chose this show is because it gives insight on how women today can manage employment, society, home life, government and legal philosophy and personal relationship. Ã¢â¬Å"The Good WifeÃ¢â¬ , is an American TV series written by Michelle King, Robert King, Ted Humphrey, and More. Ã¢â¬Å"The Good WifeÃ¢â¬ is a show that tells of a stay at home mom for many years has to return to the working world. TheRead MoreMarketing Argos4055 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pages2 Key development of Argos 2 Significance of analyzing business environment 3 Identifying 3 Scanning 4 Analyzing 4 Forecasting 4 SWOT analysis 5 Strengths 5 Weaknesses 5 Opportunities 6 Threats 6 Limitations and conclusion of SWOT analysis 7 Evaluation 8 PESTEL Analysis 8 Political 8 Economic 9 Social 9 Technology 10 Environment 10 Legal 10 Limitations and conclusion of PESTEL 11 Conclusion 11 Bibliography 12 Introduction Argos is one of the largestRead MorePerformance Management Performance Management Performance Management2240 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesshould lie elsewhere or not. Hospitals Performance measures for Finances Finance is a major part of running a hospital. As much as any company or hospital would like to make a profit and expand, it also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be over funded. Government can take some of that money away to fund other hospitals. Therefore running a hospital employs a different management strategy to any other business with regards to finances. Hampstead Royal Free Hospital is located in North London and it serves Read MoreAmerican Influence and Foreign Policy in Iranian Revolution and Iranian Hostage Crisis1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesousting of democratically elected Premier Mohammed Mossadeq. The downfall of Mossadeq brought the Shah Pahlevi back into power. Through Operation Ajax, the CIA forced Mossadeq to resign by utilizing tactics such as bribing key figures in MossadeqÃ¢â¬â¢s government, placing false statements in national newspapers and instigating violence and protests. The reinstatement of the Iranian Shah was to the advantage of the United States as it gained control over on one of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable resources, oil. ThisRead MorePersepolis Essay820 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslives in during this middle-eastern conflict. Set during the Iranian revolution of 1979, the era in which the Shah seized power of dictatorship until he removed from power in 1990. Persepolis key intention is to show the major influen ces that this government has had on religious impacts on Iran as a whole nation. Restrictions of the media, censorship, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s empowerment, human rights and are just a few examples. The way the Author, Marjane blends the novel so perfectly between the combination ofRead MoreEssay on Global Warming1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschange). Since this time, reports, and study have be done with graphs to show the impact of global warming and what could happen to our planet. In 1979, the first conference was held this was called Ã¢â¬ËInternational climate scienceÃ¢â¬â¢ it called on governments to Ã¢â¬Ëforesee and prevent man-made changes in climateÃ¢â¬â¢. 1988 the Ã¢â¬ËIPCCÃ¢â¬â¢ was setup by the Ã¢â¬ËUnited NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ to look at reports and the findings, they advised measures to stop Ã¢â¬Ëgreenhouse gases to prevent global warmingÃ¢â¬â¢. 1992 Ã¢â¬Ë154 nations signed the
which his characterized by snoring, sleep disturbance and day time sleepiness. There is a close relation between OSA and hypertension; as many as one-third of hypertensive patients and above 80% of those with resistant hypertension have OSA. Alcohol- Higher intake of alcohol increases the blood pressure. Reducing alcohol leads to fall in the systolic blood pressure. Stress- Psychological or environmental stress play a part in the causes of hypertension. Direct effects of situations such as poverty, unemployment and poor education (stressors) are involved, as are other aspects of lifestyle that are linked to hypertension. Exercise- Physical activity increases blood pressure, but people who exercise regularly have lower blood pressures. Such people, however, also may have a healthier diet and more sensible drinking and smoking habits. Other dietary factors- Vegetarians generally have lower BP than non-vegetarians. Reducing a meat rich diet with vegetable products reduces blood pressure. Caffeine and caffeinated drinks also increases blood pressure and must be avoided. THE VARIOUS BODY MECHANISMS THAT CAUSES AND INFLUENCES HYPERTENSION The various mechanisms that cause and influences hypertension are actually built into us for good reasons: we need them to keep our blood pressure from falling too low. But when they go somewhat awry, they cause high blood pressure. And when that happens, we need treatment for hypertension, ironically aimed at the same mechanisms. 1. HowShow MoreRelatedRelationship Between Technology Consumption And Sleep Deprivation984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsumption and sleep deprivation. In this technology driven Information Age many researchers believe it is important to determine the affect of such electronic devices on the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s health and day-to-day life. While measuring scales and values differ among articles, there is an agreement among researchers that in bed technology use is positively associated with Insomnia. The relationship has been assessed through examination of morningness/eveningness, chronotype, daytime sleepiness and other determinatesRead MoreSleep Disturbances and Maternal Sleep1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHypothesis: Children with sleep disturbances create poor quality of sleep and daytime functioning for the maternal parent. Variables: When predicting weather a childÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep disruptions affected the quality of maternal sleep; the dependent variable was the quality of sleep for the maternal parent and the independent variable was the childÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep disruptions. When predicting weather a childÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep disruption affected the daily functioning of the maternal parent; the dependent variables wereRead MoreThe Effects Of Partial Sleep Deprivation On Cognitive Performances944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe effects of partial sleep deprivation on cognitive performances (such as attention and reaction time) was examined in twelve handball goalkeepers. After becoming familiar with the tests, the subjects participated in three tests in a randomized order over three days with a 72 hour rest period in between each session. These three days were (i) a reference-night which subjects slept nine hours, (ii) a partial sleep deprivation at the beginning of the night (SDB) where subjects slept from 3:00 toR ead MoreSleep Deprivation And Childhood Deprivation1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesapproximately 8-10 hours of sleep per night and young adults (18-25) should be getting 7-9 hours of sleep ideally (Ferrara Gennaro, 2001). Getting this amount of sleep is ideal for proper growth and health in teens/young adults. However, generally speaking ask any typical High Schooler, more common in Juniors/Seniors, and they will say that their sleep schedule is nowhere close to the recommended amount (Dinges, Pack, Williams et al. 1997). This is where the issue of sleep deprivation arises. GettingRead MoreThe Effect Of Daytime Sleepiness On Aged Care Residents3515 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesTitle: Evidence in Relation to Daytime Sleepiness in Aged Care Residents INTRODUCTION: The case here is about the aged care facility with the greater number of residents having irregular sleeping pattern and are awake during the night resulting in daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness is causing lack of physical activity; disturbed eating pattern and the residents tend to sleep for a long period during the day. In this assignment I am going to do research about what could be the reason behind thisRead MoreSleep Deprivation Is A Condition That Occurs If A Person Does Not Receive Enough Sleep1362 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSleep deprivation is a condition that occurs if a person does not receive enough sleep. Sleep is a basic human need that a variety of nurses struggle with when working night shifts. Researchers believe that nurses who work night shifts in medical institutions usually suffer from sleep deprivation, which in turn cause headaches and adversely affects human biological rhythms. This causes disruption of important physiological functions, which in turn leads to the increase of medical errors. Lack ofRead MoreSleep Disorders : Sleep Apnea And Narcolepsy Essay1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSleepÃ¢â¬ ¦ How much is too little? How much is too much? Does it matter when one sleeps? Without the crucial state of rest for both the mind and the body, known as sleep, human beings would be unable to perform everyday skills essential to thriving, such eating, critical thinking, and performing tasks effectively. If oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sleeping patterns are disturbed on a regular basis, then that person quite possibly might have a sleep disorder. The topic of sleep disorders is complex and extensive due to theRead MoreSleep Deprivation And Academic Performance1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSleep Deprivation and Academic Performance in Adolescents Sleep deprivation is an increasing issue with adolescents. Statistics show that 60% of high schoolers report extreme daytime sleepiness. 20% to 33% of those high schools report falling asleep in class at least once during the week. Daytime sleepiness is only a small issue about sleep deprivation in students. Sleep deprivation negatively impacts school performance adolescent students because it interferes with brain development, create moodRead MoreThe Sleep Patterns Of University Students993 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe sleep patterns of university students are more problematic than those of high school students and non-university-attending adults: in one report, university students obtained fewer hours of sleep at night on leisure days relative to high school students, and their nighttime mid-sleep time was later on school days relative to that of high school students (Urner, Tornic, Bloch, 2009). Sleep problems in university studentÃ¢â¬â¢s likely result from myriad influences, incl uding biological factors suchRead MoreSleep Needed for Human Life779 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSleep is very important to a human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s health. The consequences of sleep manifest in both health and performance. The relationships between sleep and performance have been studied in many different fields including human science, medicine, psychology, education, and business and etc. Sleep-related variables for instance sleep deficiency, sleep quality, sleep habits have been shown to influence the performance of students (Lack, 1986; Mulgrew et al., 2007; National Sleep Foundation, 2008; Pilcher
Question: With reference to selected feminist theories, critically discuss the argument that both sex and gender are socially constructed. Is this a helpful way to understand how femininities and masculinities are constructed today? Answer: Evolution of Femininities and Masculinities in the society: This assignment is critically based on the argument that both the sex and gender are socially created and their use in feminist work. This assignment also discusses the concepts of femininity and masculinity in analytical perspective. These concepts are used by the society to study the social behavior. The study of gender is having a wide range of framework that helps to research in the study of the behavior. The concept of gender was first developed by Iill Matthews (1984), in the research of construction of femininity. According to this research work, every community distinguishes between the men and women. Thus, the concept of gender determines the role of men and women in the society and selects a particular pattern in their relationship. The patriarchy concept clears the view of male dominance in the society. The concept of gender shows the difference in behavior of men and women in the society and basically analysis of their difference from the biological and social constructio n point of view (Athenstaedt, et. al., 2007). The concept of femininity and masculinity determines a particular male as masculine in behavior and a female as a feminine in behavior. The word gender and sex is used by various feminist writers and researchers to show the biological difference between female and male and social difference between woman and man. Many feminist sociologists convey that there is a need to understand the concept of sex and gender in a larger perspective. Sex The term sex determines the physiological and biological difference between female and male sex. The word sex shows the physical differentiation between the biological female and a biological male. Whenever a child is born, the label of boy or a girl is done on the basis of their sex. The basis of such characterization is the genital differentiation between the female and male. Most people are born with the biological differentiation with one sex or another, except some ambiguous cases. However, it had been evident that after being label as a boy or girl the new born child is socially characterized according to their gender with specific roles and expectations. The biological males are made to learn to act in masculine way and also socially act in that way. The biological female is also learned to act in a feminine way and also socially behave in that way. According to feminist writer Simone de Beauvoir one is not born a man but becomes one. One is not born a woman but becomes o ne (Beres, 2014). Feminist writers like Judith Butler have criticized the views that there is no difference between the female child and male child at the time of birth except their reproductive organs and genitals. The gender construction is made by the society depending on their genitals. To some extent the psychological and social construction has been made by the biological difference. According to Judith Butler, the sex is natural thing but the gender is superimposed upon it by the society following some secondary constructions. Butler further said that sex is itself a social category. Therefore, from his point of view, the difference between female and male is made by the society and it is a social distinction. It is a specific way of dividing and perceiving the difference between female and male. Butler argues that though sex is biological, the term is made by social constructions (Beres, 2014). The biological definition and meaning of sex helps to explain the basic difference in the sex. Butler was concerned about the fact that biology being a part of science shows a social system of representation, as there are many differences among various human beings and apart from that only some basic difference have create divisions between the human beings. In other words, this idea has divided the human beings into two parts, as even though there are differences in the two sexes, there is no rational or logical reason for this. Judith Butler explains that sex is an analytical as well as a normative category. It determines what woman and men are and what they ought to do. It specifies the behavior of women and men. Therefore, Butler concludes that sex is social category but some feminist writers are against it and basically regard sex as a biological term in the nature (Boxer, 2007). As per the research work in sociology, many researchers believe that each individual has one sex, sexuality and one gender. Often the sex means sexuality; it may refer to physiology or biology. A man is assumed to be masculine male and a woman a feminine female. When a child is born, they are categorized as per their gender, thus, is essential to have a clear idea of gender. Gender The term gender became famous in the early 1970 from the feminist writings. In social term, gender describes the difference between the men and women, as what men can do and what women can do or cannot do. Thus, it can be said that gender is an analytical category in the society that is constructed upon the biological difference between men and women. Gender also differentiates the difference between men and women in terms of behavior that is masculine and feminine (Connell, 2005). Feminist writers consider gender as social construction rather than biological difference, which is made by the patriarchal society. Some researchers suggest that the physical and mental difference creates the biological difference in women and men. They also believe that men are biologically men are mentally and physically stronger than women. However, other researchers argue that the biological difference between women and men has been exaggerated and the difference is created by the patriarchal system that determines men superior to women. Thus, women become dependent on the men in the society. Ann Oakley in the book Sex, Gender and Society explored the word gender. Oakley said that in the Western culture the role of women in the society has been determined as mother and house wife, and this role is given to them because of their biological structure. The Western Culture also believes that if these traditional roles are changed, it could cause damage to the basic framework of the society. Thus, Oakley concluded that these views of roles of women help the patriarchal society to maintain their basic values (Folbre, 2009). Simon de Beauvoir in the book The Second Sex explained that the gender difference in the patriarchal society makes the men superior to women through their role as bread winner. The men are given a power in the family as well as in the society. The gender difference is created in such a way that the men are superior and women are always dependent on them. Women position in the society is always as an outsider and the civilization is highly masculine (Mirchandani, 2006). Shulamith Firestone in the book The Dialectics of Sex stated that patriarchy society had exploited the capacity of women to reproduce and determined it as their weakness. The writer further suggested women that in order to break away these traditional barriers technological advances way should be used to free them from the burden of childbirth. The writer advocated breaking down the biological bond between child and mother by creating communes where nuclear family and monogamy does not exists. Some feminist accepts the suggestions of Firestones mainly because the use of technology is still in the hands of men (Fox, 2011). However, the cultural feminist disagrees, and asks whether the difference between women and men are only cultural or it also has a biological perspective. These feminist prefers the value of motherhood as the evidence of natural disposition and would to relinquish it. Ann Oakley said that there is constant link between the sex and gender, and gave the example that in the application forms, people are asked to mention their gender instead of sex. In feminist writing, it is inevitable that there is close connection between gender and the biology or the nature. Recent writings on gender and sex have mentioned that feminist has very much dependent on polarizing gender and sex, determining that they are socially created and could be changed. This discussion is totally based on the fact that how every individual understands various consequences of biological facts with their own cultural values. This also argues that biology contributes to be behavior characteristics of any individual. Movia Gatens has said, The male body and the female body have quite different social value and significance and cannot but help have a marked effect on male and female consciousness (Fox, 2011). The body structure of women have huge role in citing ones gender. The writer gave the example of menstruation and said that women are considered weak due to this factor. The masculinity is not valued unless it is biologically male. Therefore, the male body considers them to be superior in our traditional culture. Judith Butler explained that gender introduces the idea involuntarily functions in the dominant discourses of hetero reality. The writer further states Sex or gender distinction suggests a radical discontinuity between sexed bodies and culturally constructed gender (Fox, 2011). This view asks the question the procedure of constructing gender identity. It is very difficult to accept the rigid difference between gender and sex, whether it is entirely cultural or biological. There is a constant change is the concept of individuals as the gender or sex is a social or biological forces. The debate of gender and sex will continue in favor of biological differences, whereas feminist writers will continue to claim gender and sex as socially created by the institution of religion, family marriage, caste and etc. It has been noted that in past few decades the role of women in the society as well their position in the society has drastically changed and gave new dimensions to feminist writers in terms of gender and sex discussions (Jo, 2014). Deconstructing Sex and Gender It is needed to rethink the concept of sex and gender distinctly in order to determine gender categories as they are socially constructed in various ways. Gender is a vital category that determines the major social life of an individual all aspects of social life. Thus, society has created various bodies and major institutions of society like economy, polity, ideology, family and etc. For any individual, the sex is categorized at the time of birth depending upon the individuals genital. Every gender has its own gender identity, marital and procreative status, gendered sexual orientation, a gendered personality structure, gender at work, gender attitudes and beliefs and respective family responsibility or roles (Jongryul Choi, 2010). These social factors are congruent and consistent with the biological structure of any individual. The normal combination could not be consistent with one another and also with the components of sex and gender; however, these factors could not match up wi th each other and have a binary divide. The official needs of categorizing of infants in the society into a clear label of being a girl or a boy, soon after the time of birth is sometimes considered as unwanted sex assignment. Sex change operations are common in infants who have anomalous genitalia. Feminist are aware of many cases of physiological and biological sexes. The importance of the society in categorizing the sex of infants as female or male shows the practice of clear sex differentiation. Apart from these critical explorations, the difference in sex could be considered as natural process that is in reality constructed by the society (Lucal, 2012). Masculinity and Femininity The gender or sex differences raises the issues of female and male, feminine and masculine, female linked with femininity and male linked with masculinity. These biological constructions create difference between women and men that further rises to social descriptions. Feminist writers believe that biological difference increases the social descriptions of femininity and masculinity. The difference in the individuals character is observed by patters of difference that either feminine or masculine. For example, pink is regarded as a feminine color and blue is regarded as masculine color. Masculine is also regarded as tough and strong. The feminine character is associated with soft and weak character and various other traits that categorize the feminine and masculine gender. The social outcome of being male or female is determined by the masculinity and femininity respectively (Paltasingh and Lingam, 2014). The characteristics and traits that describes difference in women and men, give s more advantage to men over women. Moria Gatens stated that masculinity is not valued until and unless it is performed by biological male. Thus, the male body has certain characteristics and traits of maleness or masculinity. Thus, in human being, male is determined as the supreme. In the same way, femininity is categorized to biological female. The female body has certain characteristics and traits of femaleness or femininity. As per the research of Judith Butler, any concept gives idea about gender performance in terms of femininity and masculinity. Therefore, the performance of gender has entered the society and the dominance of patriarchy gender has evolved at different levels of society as well as in the families. Every individual enters into this gender category of feminine and masculine right from the time of birth (Lucal, 2012). The concept of femininity and masculinity has emerged in the feminist writings showing the difference between women and men. Some of the researcher s states that the difference between women and men are biologically created, whereas some of the researchers disagrees and states that women and men differences are socially constructed. Thus, the body structure of men and masculinity acquires the characteristics of male. The body structure of female and femininity acquires the characteristics of female. In modern writings, there is a concept that the social construction of femininity and masculinity are less distinct. There is wide shift in human beings about the control of gender by social or biological forces. In the present days, women lives have changed rapidly along with their expectations and their responsibilities or roles have broadened. Therefore, it shows how flexible is the category of femininity (Richardson, 2010). The feminist activists are concern about the status of women across the society and try to improve their present conditions. They are committed to understand the traditional aspects of the society and analyze the womens position in the society. However, there are different approaches given by the feminist activists to improve the status of women in the society, they are: Liberal feminism Socialist feminism Radical feminism Eco feminism Marxist feminism New-wave feminism Condition feminism Liberal feminism The liberal feminism was started in the 18th century and it was called the Enlightenment period. In this period there was a strong believe in the individuality and rationality and also known as the time of reason. The period was rejected the religious dogmas and automatic government. Many topics aroused at that time and the crucial topic was status of women in society. Individuality means the freedom of doing what one wishes to without interference from others. Feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft said Women are first and foremost human being rational creatures and not sexual being. They are capable of governing themselves by reason. Hence, if women are to be denied natural right, then it must be proved that they are not rational creatures (Richardson, 2010). Socialist feminism The socialist feminism is having three types, the Marxian, radical and phenomenological. From the Marxian thoughts social feminism was started and was connected with the radical feminism. Social feminism is also stressed to improve status of women in the society and thus, it also phenomenology describing womens perspective. The main goal of social feminism is to get combination of precision and breadth, and achieve all forms of oppression to explore womens experiences. Hence, the stress is on finding problems of women and then solving them by developing a common agenda for the improving their status in the society (Mazur and McBride, 2007). Radical feminism The radical feminism is a type of philosophy that emphasizes on the roots of patriarchal inequality between women and men or mainly social domination of men over women. The radical feminism believes that patriarchy society has divided the rights, power and privileges by gender and thus, has privileged men and oppressed women. The radical feminist rejects the social organization as it is patriarchy in origin. However, the radical feminism is not against the men but opposes patriarchy. Therefore, they want to change the culture of the society that eradicates the patriarchal society (Vashisth and Kumar, 2014). Summary The concept of gender and sex are used by socialist or feminist writers to study the social behavior of the society. The concept of sex, gender, femininity and masculinity and patriarchy are essential words in gender studies. In this assignment the discussion was about the concept of sex and gender studies. The concept of sex determines the physiological and biological difference between female and male. The feminist writers accept the basic biological difference between women and men but argue that the characteristics and traits of biological female and biological male is constructed by the society. The gender defines the social construction difference between female and male that created by the patriarchal society. In recent feminist writings they accept that the rigid difference between gender and sex as entire cultural or biological is difficult. The gender or the sex are terms that raises the issues of female or male, feminine or masculine, female connected with femininity and male connected with masculinity. These constructions show the biological differences between women and men into social descriptions. Feminist writers state that a biological difference raises the social descriptions of femininity and masculinity and they used the term patriarchy society to refer the social system that is dominated by the men over women. They had given various theories that show the dependence of women upon men in the patriarchy society. The feminist approaches are concerned about the dependence of women in the society and are intended to develop strategies to establish equality and independence of women in the society. Therefore, from this assignment it can be said that the concept of sex and gender was merely constructed by the society on the basis of biological differences between women and men. References: Athenstaedt, U., Heinzle, C. and Lerchbaumer, G. (2007). Gender Subgroup Self-Categorization and Gender Role Self-Concept. Sex Roles, 58(3-4), pp.266-278. Beres, M. (2014). Rethinking the concept of consent for anti-sexual violence activism and education. Feminism Psychology, 24(3), pp.373-389. Boxer, M. (2007). Rethinking the Socialist Construction and International Career of the Concept "Bourgeois Feminism". The American Historical Review, 112(1), pp.131-158. Connell, R. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept. Gender Society, 19(6), pp.829-859. Folbre, N. (2009). Varieties of Patriarchal Capitalism. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society, 16(2), pp.204-209. Fox, M. (2011). Prototype theory: An alternative concept theory for categorizing sex and gender?. NASKO, 3(1). Jo, J. (2014). Haraway's Cyborg Feminism from the Perspective of Practice Theory : On the Concept of Material-Semiotic Practices. jstc, 30, p.1. Jongryul Choi, (2010). A Society of Unconditional Expenditure 2 : Implosion of the Patriarchal Family and Eroticization of Society. , 8(1), pp.128-173. Lucal, B. (2012). Book Review: Sex, Drag and Male Roles: Investigating Gender as Performance. Gender Society, 26(4), pp.678-680. Mazur, A. and McBride, D. (2007). State Feminism since the 1980s: From Loose Notion to Operationalized Concept. Pol Gender, 3(04). Mirchandani, R. (2006). "Hitting is not Manly": Domestic Violence Court and the Re-Imagination of the Patriarchal State. Gender Society, 20(6), pp.781-804. Paltasingh, T. and Lingam, L. (2014). 'Production' and 'Reproduction' in Feminism: Ideas, Perspectives and Concepts. IIM Kozhikode Society Management Review, 3(1), pp.45-53. Richardson, J. (2010). Feminism, Property in the Person and Concepts of Self. British Journal of Politics International Relations, 12(1), pp.56-71. Vashisth, A. and Kumar, A. (2014). The Evolution of Feminism: Comparison of Adaptation and By-Product Concepts. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 24(3), pp.267-280.